Public Sector Capacity Building
The Philippines is one of 14 phase 1 countries participating in the LECB Global Programme focused in building the capacity of the public sector in planning and implementing activities to mitigate climate change. The Overall Programme will strengthen national capacities to do the following:
- Develop/establish greenhouse gas inventory management systems;
- Formulate Nationally Appropriate Mitigation Actions (NAMAs) and/or low-emission development strategies (LEDS) in the context of national development; and
- Design MRV (Measurement, Reporting and Verification) systems to support implementation and evaluation of NAMAs and LEDS.
Outcome 1: A robust national system for the preparation of GHG emission inventories have been established at a national level
The LECB PHL Project supports technical and institutional capacity development geared toward building capacity for national GHG inventory system. The design, institutional framework and coordination mechanism for the national system that will enable the national government to conduct regular and sustained GHG inventory is being established in consultation with all the implementers and other stakeholders in the national government.
As party to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC), the Philippines has prepared and submitted two National Communications, which included GHG National inventories. This can be seen as the country's contribution to the global scientific effort to collect data for climate projections, as calculated by complex mathematical models developed by scientists and technical experts. These models can provide us with scenarios of what could happen based on various assumptions and data fed into it. How well the projections correspond to the real world depends both on the design and assumptions of the model and on the quality of the data used. Thus, collecting accurate data through GHG inventory reports would improve the baseline for planning a more targeted mitigation program and for a better allocation of resources.
For both the Initial National Communication (INC) and the Second National Communication (SNC), the Philippine government procured the services of consultants to conduct the national inventory and to write the inventory report. After the conduct of the second GHG inventory, it was clear that there was a need to institutionalize the GHG inventory reporting process in relevant government agencies. Requirements for frequent reporting to international bodies and for a more comprehensive mitigation analysis for climate-responsive planning were the major drivers for the establishment of a sustainable GHG reporting process.
Figure 1: To institutionalize a national GHG inventory system, the Philippines used three policy documents: 1) An Executive Order (E.0. 174) signed by the President that mandates the establishment of the Philippine Greenhouse Gas Inventory and Management System (PGHGIMRS); 2) its Implementing Rules and Regulations which clarifies the institutional arrangements and coordination mechanism involved; and 3) a PGHGIMRS Reference Manual that identifies, among others, data requirements, calculation methodologies and document templates necessary for the preparation of the PGHG inventory report. The basic institutional arrangement for the PGHGIMRS is outlined on the right diagram. Five national agencies and their sub-units have been identified as lead agencies for the GHG inventory sector
Through the Project, the Climate Change Commission established Technical Working Groups (TWGs) for the six inventory sectors (Agriculture, Waste, Industry, Transportation, Forestry and Energy Sectors) who may be called upon during the development of the overarching framework for institutionalization of a national GHG inventory system, consistent with the country's National Climate Change Action Plan. The members of the TWG come from relevant government agencies, the academe, civil and social organizations, and other groups from the private sector who may be invited to promote synergies among stakeholders and to ensure sectoral complementation of efforts.
Trainings to all six inventory sectors began in earnest on 2012, starting with the BasicTheory and Principles on Climate Change, as well as on GHG Inventory using 2006 IPCC Guidelines and Tools. Through the knowledge and information gained from the trainings, the TWG members recognized the necessity of institutionalizing and systematizing the huge task of conducting a national GHG inventory. Within a year, the CCC and the TWG members started drafting alegislation in the form of a Presidential Executive Order, to mandate and facilitate the preparation of a national GHG inventory report, as part of the country's National Communication to the UNFCCC. Finally, on November 2014, the Executive Order entitled "E.O. 174: Institutionalizing the Philippine Greenhouse Gas Inventory Management and Reporting System (PGHGIMRS)" was signed by the President and was made effective after it was published in a newspaper with national distribution.
The CCC is currently working on the finalization and approval of the Implementing Rules and Regulations of E.O. 174 and the development of the PGHGIMRS Reference Manual which will contain the rules of procedure (including QA/QC and archiving methodologies) and documentation formats to be accomplished by the inventory sectoral teams. Once completed, these three policy documents will ensure the adoption and streamlining of GHG reporting activities into the regular mandates and responsibilities of relevant agencies. Thus, the foundation for climate-smart planning would be laid and decision-makers would be better guided as they plan and pursue development goals.